November 2015

## Program

### Monday december 7: R Basics

• What is R
• The R GUI, Workspace
• Objects, operators, functions
• Basic Analyses in R

### Monday december 14: Getting Started with Data Analysis in R

• Installing and using R packages

## R

• R is a language and environment for statistical computing and for graphics

• GNU project

• Managed by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

• Based on the object-oriented language S (1975)

## R is Awesome

• Free

• Open Source

• Community Driven

• Many resources available

## The help resources

• Everything on the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) and is aimed at R users, must be accompanied by a comprehensive help file. - Type ?anova or help(anova) in the console.
• Type ?? followed by your search criterion. For example ??anova returns a list of all help pages that contain the word 'anova'
• Alternatively, the rest of internet will help. For example: http://www.stackoverflow.com, http://www.stackexchange.com
• If you google R related issues; use 'R:' as a prefix in your search term

## The R Graphical User Interface (GUI) ## First things first: R as a basic calculator

• Operators: built in functions to do the most basic operations

## First things first: R as a basic calculator

• Operators: built in functions to do the most basic operations

• Arithmetic operators: +, -, /, *, ^, :
• Logical operators: <, <=, >, >=, ==, !=
(2+3)/5
##  1
2>3
##  FALSE
2/3==4*2/12
##  TRUE

## Objects, operators, functions

• Store data in "objects"
• Store "functions" in objects
• Perform calculations on objects with data, using "operators" or functions
• These operators and functions return results
• which can in turn be stored in objects.

## Where do you get these objects, operators, functions?

• You program them yourself
• They are stored as part of basic R functionality
• They are stored in packages made for R that you have installed

## Putting Data in Objects:

• R works with objects that consist out of elements (data).
• The elements are 'assigned' to objects.
• Once you have assigned an element to an object, it is stored in the global environment.
• Assigning things in R is very straightforward:

• you just use <- (or =)
a <- 100

## Calling Objects

• Calling things in R is also very straightforward:

• you just use type the name you have given to the object
• For example, we assigned the value 100 to the object called a. To call object a, we would type

a
##  100

## Types of Data to put in Objects (modes)

• Numeric (numbers)
• Character or String (text)
• Logical (True or False)
• Many other (sub)categories which are beyond the scope of this course.
a <- 100
mode(a)
##  "numeric"
b <- "apple"
mode(b)
##  "character"

## Types of Data to put in Objects

c <- "100"
mode(c)
##  "character"
d <- as.numeric(c)
d
##  100
e <- 3>2
mode(e)
##  "logical"

## Special classes of Data to put in Objects

• Missing data is coded as NA.
• Data that are the result of ´impossible' operations are coded as NaN
f <- NA
is.na(f)
##  TRUE
sqrt(-1)
## Warning in sqrt(-1): NaNs produced
##  NaN

## Types of Objects for Storing Your Data

• vectors
• matrices
• arrays (beyond the scope of this course)
• lists
• dataframes

• Each type of object can only store either numeric data, or string data (but NA and NaN may be mixed in)
• with the exception of dataframes and lists.

## Vectors

• A vector is a 1-dimensional concatenation of one or more elements (either all strings, or numbers)
a <- c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
a
##  1 2 3 4 5
b <- 6:10
b
##   6  7  8  9 10

## Calling elements in vectors

If we would want just the third element, we would type

b
##  8

## Matrices

• A matrix contains one or multiple vectors
• a matrix is 2-dimensional: nrow specifies the number of rows, ncol the number of columns
c <- matrix(a, nrow = 5, ncol = 2)
c
##      [,1] [,2]
## [1,]    1    1
## [2,]    2    2
## [3,]    3    3
## [4,]    4    4
## [5,]    5    5

## Calling elements in matrices #1

• The first row is called by
c[1, ]
##  1 1
• The second column is called by
c[, 2]
##  1 2 3 4 5

## Calling elements in matrices #2

• The intersection of the first row and second column is called by
c[1, 2]
##  1

In short; square brackets [] are used to call elements, rows, and columns

## Dataframes

• The object type that R uses for fitting statistical models to
• Look and work similar to matrices
• Contain multiple vectors, organized in rows and columns
• May contain both vectors with characters, and vectors with numbers!
head(ToothGrowth)
##    len supp dose
## 1  4.2   VC  0.5
## 2 11.5   VC  0.5
## 3  7.3   VC  0.5
## 4  5.8   VC  0.5
## 5  6.4   VC  0.5
## 6 10.0   VC  0.5

## Lists

• A list is an object that contains a collection of other objects.
l = c(2, 3, 5)
m = c("aa", "bb", "cc", "dd", "ee")
x = list(l,m)
x
## []
##  2 3 5
##
## []
##  "aa" "bb" "cc" "dd" "ee"
• Most R model fitting functions return the analysis results in lists.

## Functions

• functions are objects that are used to do calculations on other objects
• all functions have a name, and they can be called using that name.

## Functions

• functions are objects that are used to do calculations on other objects
• all functions have a name, and they can be called using that name.
• if you want to know how a function works and what it does, call ?functionname
?mean()

## Functions

• all functions work by specifying one or more 'arguments' for that function (like setting options)
x <- c(2,4,3,NA,5)
mux <- mean(x, na.rm=TRUE)
mux
##  3.5

## Functions

• Many basic functions are available in R from the start. You have already seen these: mean(), c(), matrix(), list(),head(),mode(), as.numeric(), is.na(), sqrt()
• Many more are available in packages
• And you can make new ones yourself

## Tips

• use the help resources available online
• Don't be afraid to just try things